Library filed under Safety

Land Use Issues of Wind Turbine Generator Sites- Ice Throw

Otsegowindicethrow_thumb Ice throw is a concern related to the fact that any object at the end of the rotating blades is traveling at a high rate of speed. In the case of a 60 meter turbine (about 200’ diameter), rotating at 20 RPM, the tip of the blade is traveling at just over 140 mph. If the turbine diameter increases to 80 meters, the tip speed increases to just over 187 mph. There are reports of ice having accumulated at the tip of the turbine and upon breaking loose, traveling significant distance......
19 Jan 2004

Kittitas County Desert Claim Wind Power Project: Final EIS

Health___safety_thumb 3.8 Health & Safety Affected Environment, Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures "A number of comments submitted for the scoping process for the Desert Claim project EIS addressed concerns relating to potential health and safety issues. Specific topics indicated in these comments included certain possible hazards that are uniquely associated with wind turbines, such as blade throw and ice throw; health and safety issues associated with electrical and magnetic fields; more common hazards such as fire; and the incidence and impacts of shadow flicker, another phenomenon specific to wind turbines. Section 3.8 addresses these wide-ranging health and safety topics that have been identified as concerns for the environmental review. "
1 Jan 2004

Typhoon Maemi downs wind turbines - Japan

Typhoon-maemi_thumb Typhoon Maemi struck Miyakojima Island on September 11, 2003 with an average wind speed of 38.4m/s and a maximum gust of 74.1m/s, recorded at Miyakojima meteorological station. All six wind turbines operated by Okinawa Electric Power Company were extensively damaged. Two Micon M750/400kW turbines collapsed by the buckling of the towers and one Enercon E40/500kW turbine turned over due to the destruction of the foundation. The other three experienced broken blades and damaged nacelle covers.
11 Sep 2003

U.S. Dept. of Transportation (FAA): Advisory Circular- Obstruction Marking and Lighting

Faalighting_thumb ADVISORY CIRCULAR: AC 70/7460-1K Obstruction Marking and Lighting-- This change amends the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) standards for marking and lighting structures to promote aviation safety. This change is effective August 1, 2000.....A sponsor proposing any type of construction or alteration of a structure that may affect the National Airspace System (NAS) is required under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR part 77) to notify the FAA by completing the Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration form (FAA Form 7460-1). The form should be sent to the FAA Regional Air Traffic Division office having jurisdiction over the area where the planned construction or alteration would be located.
1 Aug 2000

Wind Energy: Cold Weather Issues

Wind_energy_cold_weather_issues_thumb "This paper provides an overview of the issues affecting wind turbine operations in cold weather with a special emphasis given on atmospheric conditions prevailing in the Northeast United States. The first section describes previous and more recent wind energy projects in cold weather areas. In the second section, environmental elements most likely to impact on the operation of wind turbines in cold weather are introduced: low temperatures, icing and snow. It also presents various climatic situations and their specific behavior in cold weather. The third section suggests some solutions to problems identified in the previous section. In addition, this paper suggests ideas of further research on the operation of wind turbines in cold climate. It also identifies organizations interested by similar issues whose cooperation would be beneficial."
1 Jun 2000

Assessment of Safety Risks Arising from Wind Turbine Icing

Assessment_of_safety_risks_arising_from_wind_turbine_icing_thumb "Developers and owners of wind turbines have a duty to ensure the safety of the general public and their own staff. However, there are currently no guidelines for dealing with potential dangers arising from ice thrown off wind turbines. This puts developers, owners, planning authorities and insurers in a difficult position. To rectify this situation, the work presented here has commenced in order to produce an authoritative set of guidelines. Initial work has resulted in the development of a risk assessment methodology which has been used to demonstrate that the risk of being struck by ice thrown from a turbine is diminishingly small at distances greater than approximately 250 m from the turbine in a climate where moderate icing occurs."
2 Apr 1998
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