Documents from USA
Dr. David M. Lipscomb PhD provided this testimony before the State of Washington Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council involving the risks of noise emissions from then proposed Sumas Generating Plant on human health. An excerpt of the testimony is provided below. The full testimony can be downloaded by clicking on the link at the bottom of this page.
"This paper provides an overview of the issues affecting wind turbine operations in cold weather with a special emphasis given on atmospheric conditions prevailing in the Northeast United States. The first section describes previous and more recent wind energy projects in cold weather areas. In the second section, environmental elements most likely to impact on the operation of wind turbines in cold weather are introduced: low temperatures, icing and snow. It also presents various climatic situations and their specific behavior in cold weather. The third section suggests some solutions to problems identified in the previous section. In addition, this paper suggests ideas of further research on the operation of wind turbines in cold climate. It also identifies organizations interested by similar issues whose cooperation would be beneficial."
The stubborn competitive gap between renewable generation and its rivals explains why renewable-energy lobbyists on both the state and federal levels are trying to get governments to set quotas, and not just continue or expand current subsidies.
Although the nation's wind potential is very large, only part of it can be exploited economically. The economic viability of wind power will vary from utility to utility. Important factors not addressed in this study that influence land availability and wind electric potential include production/demand match (seasonal and daily), transmission and access constraints, public acceptance, and other technological and institutional constraints. Editor's Note: Though dated, this is a worthwhile read if read carefully.
This paper, presented at the Windpower ’87 Conference & Exposition in San Francisco by N.D. Kelley, a physicist at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado validates the fact that turbines (both upwind and downwind) produce low-frequency sound emissions that can negatively impact humans within their homes. Although modern wind turbines are different from those studied in 1987, the research is significant in that it demonstrates the need to test for low-frequency sound emissions and to do so inside buildings.
This status report released by the California Energy Commission discusses the status of the technology, current and proposed development, regulatory processes, issues hindering development, and recommended actions needed to resolve identified issues. The section of the report on Noise and Aesthetics is provided below. Audible and low frequency impulse noise were reported as problems with the turbines. The full report can be accessed from the links on this page.
This case, before the New Jersey Superior Court, represents one of the first instances of a nuisance case brought against an operating wind turbine due to noise. The court found that the defendants' wind turbine constituted an "actionable nuisance".
General Electric's wind turbine products and related specifications are available by clicking on the web link.
This document has been prepared by Terry Matilsky, Professor of Physics at Rutgers University. For almost 40 years, he has been funded by NASA and other federal agencies to do data analysis from various scientific satellites; to examine what information tells us about a phenomena, and draw rational and solid, scientific conclusions from them.
Appendix B: Sample Local Government Requirements for Wind Energy Conversion Systems Appendix B of The National Wind Coordinating Committees' handbook contains summaries of nine California County ordinances dealing with wind facilities.
"After the wind resource and project site have been determined and the community outreach effort has been started, the next step is to apply for the necessary permits. The primary permits needed to construct most community– scale wind power projects will be the local permits: building, zoning, and/or conservation, as applicable to a specific site. Additionally, the project will need to be filed with the FAA and with the operators of the New England electrical grid. Depending on the site, other permits may come into play. This document outlines these basic permits and also lists other authorities that may have jurisdiction over community–scale wind power projects. This fact-sheet focuses on land–based commuity scale wind power projects with medium or large turbines."
Eric Rosenbloom's primer on the units one tends to encounter in researching energy issues.
The Link Below will take you to a site where wind resource maps are available for most states.
Dan Boone takes a close look at the landscape impact of the Mountaineer Wind Energy (WV) and Meyersdale (PA) industrial wind plants.
Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all. This variability does affect the value of the wind power……Editor’s Note: This ‘fact sheet’ is, on the whole, a comparatively fair report. The definitions provided for capacity factor, efficiency, reliability, dispatchability, and availability are useful. Its discussion of back-up generation, marginal emissions and Germany & Denmark, however, is disingenuous as is, to a lesser degree, its discussion of capacity factor and availability. IWA's comments (updated October '06) on these issues follow selected extracts from the 'fact sheet' below.
Clipper's wind turbine products and specifications are available by clicking on the web link.