Documents filed under Technology from USA

The Effect of Windmill Farms On Military Readiness

Dodwindfarmreport_thumb This report focuses on the effects of wind farms on air defense and missile warning radars and the resulting potential impact on military readiness. Its scope is limited to these specific subjects and is based on the current level of understanding regarding interactions between such defense systems and state-of-the-art wind turbines.........The results from those flight trials documented that state-of-the-art utility-class wind turbines can have a significant impact on the operational capabilities of military air defense radar systems. The results demonstrated that the large radar cross section of a wind turbine combined with the Doppler frequency shift produced by its rotating blades can impact the ability of a radar to discriminate the wind turbine from an aircraft. Those tests also demonstrated that the wind farms have the potential to degrade target tracking capabilities as a result of shadowing and clutter effects.
1 Sep 2006

Direct Testimony of Charles Simmons to the Virginia State Commission on behalf of Highland Citizens

Simmons_testimony_thumb Q. Please state your name and position. A. My name is Charles Simmons and I have been retained to provide assistance to Highland Citizens in regard to the application of Highland New Wind Development, LLC to construct a wind generation facility in Highland County. Editor's Note:This testimony provides an excellent description of how a grid works- particularly the role of 'economic dispatch' and 'spinning reserves'. It also addresses the methodology for estimating emissions savings and numerous other topics of interest.
1 Sep 2006

False Wind Industry Claims about the Integration in Electric Grids of the Intermittent, Volatile & Unreliable Electricity from Wind Turbines

2_wind_industry_false_claims_about_grid_impact_0806_thumb ...the wind industry and other wind energy advocates have, for years, greatly overstated the energy and environmental benefits of wind energy and understated the true environmental, ecological, economic, scenic, and property value costs. They have misled the public, media and government officials – and created a “popular wisdom” about wind energy and promoted the creation of faulty government policies, tax breaks and subsidies that will take years to correct. This brief paper deals with only two of the areas where the industry and its supporters use half-truths and false or misleading information.
29 Aug 2006

Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States

Ewec06gridpaper_thumb In this report we discuss some recent studies that have occurred in the United States since our previous work [2, 3]. The key objectives of these studies were to quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs. Examples of these costs are (a) committing unneeded generation, (b) allocating more load-following capability to account for wind variability, and (c) allocating more regulation capacity. These are referred to as “ancillary service” costs, and are based on the physical system and operating characteristics and procedures. This topic is covered in more detail by Zavadil et al. [4].
1 Jan 2006

Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States

Ewec06gridpaper_thumb In this report we discuss some recent studies that have occurred in the United States since our previous work [2, 3]. The key objectives of these studies were to quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs. Examples of these costs are (a) committing unneeded generation, (b) allocating more load-following capability to account for wind variability, and (c) allocating more regulation capacity. These are referred to as “ancillary service” costs, and are based on the physical system and operating characteristics and procedures. This topic is covered in more detail by Zavadil et al. [4].
1 Jan 2006

Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States

Ewec06gridpaper_thumb In this report we discuss some recent studies that have occurred in the United States since our previous work [2, 3]. The key objectives of these studies were to quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs. Examples of these costs are (a) committing unneeded generation, (b) allocating more load-following capability to account for wind variability, and (c) allocating more regulation capacity. These are referred to as “ancillary service” costs, and are based on the physical system and operating characteristics and procedures. This topic is covered in more detail by Zavadil et al. [4].
1 Jan 2006

Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States

Ewec06gridpaper_thumb In this report we discuss some recent studies that have occurred in the United States since our previous work [2, 3]. The key objectives of these studies were to quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs. Examples of these costs are (a) committing unneeded generation, (b) allocating more load-following capability to account for wind variability, and (c) allocating more regulation capacity. These are referred to as “ancillary service” costs, and are based on the physical system and operating characteristics and procedures. This topic is covered in more detail by Zavadil et al. [4].
1 Jan 2006

Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States

Ewec06gridpaper_thumb In this report we discuss some recent studies that have occurred in the United States since our previous work [2, 3]. The key objectives of these studies were to quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs. Examples of these costs are (a) committing unneeded generation, (b) allocating more load-following capability to account for wind variability, and (c) allocating more regulation capacity. These are referred to as “ancillary service” costs, and are based on the physical system and operating characteristics and procedures. This topic is covered in more detail by Zavadil et al. [4].
1 Jan 2006

Making Connections

With the exception of some developable wind resource areas in the eastern United States, the wind generation facilities usually interconnect with relatively weak regions of the bulk power networks. With the size of individual wind generation projects growing, this creates difficulties both for designing an appropriate interconnection and in securing transmission capacity to move energy to load centers. The availability of good models and characterizations of wind plant operations are key to analyzing and understanding both of these issues........it should be recognized that the issues confronting transmission providers and wind generation developers are not unique to North America. Organizations around the globe are making substantial investments to move the power industry up the learning curve in this area. In some countries, further growth of the wind industry is contingent upon settling questions related to wind generation impacts on the power system and the availability of appropriate analytical tools and models for making these assessments.....As of the date of this publication, it is clear that the final discussions of interconnection requirements and standards for bulk wind generation are yet to come and may actually be some years into the future. As the previous discussion shows, there is still no consensus on certain technical performance requirements among the various jurisdictional bodies that hold sway on process and reliability requirements for the power industry in the United States. Editor's Note: This article highlights accurately the critical importance of developing, in light of wind energy's intermittancy, robust interconnection requirements and standards for bulk wind generation to ensure grid stability. While these technical challenges will undoubtedly be met over time, the article does not address the overall cost/benefit equation particularly given wind energy's negligible value as a source of base load capacity.
1 Nov 2005

The Low Benefit of Industrial Wind

The_low_benefit_of_industrial_wind__e.__rosenbloom_thumb Eric Rosenbloom writes: "Driving the desire for industrial wind power is the conviction that its development is necessary to reduce the effects of fossil and/or nuclear fuel use. Thus the local impacts of large industrial wind turbine installations are justified by a greater good of healthier air and water, reduction of global warming, and moving away from harmful mining and fuel wars. These are all without question important goals. While the wind power industry tends to downplay its negative effects, many conservation groups call for careful siting and ongoing study to minimize them. There is debate, therefore, about the actual impacts, but there is none about the actual benefits. Even the most cautious of advocates do not doubt, for example, that "every kilowatt-hour generated by wind is a kilowatt-hour not generated by a dirty fuel." That may be true for a small home with substantial battery storage, but such a formula is, at best, overly simplistic for large turbines meant to supply the grid. The evidence from countries that already have a large proportion of wind power suggests that is has no effect on the use of other sources. This is not surprising when one learns how the grid works: A rise in wind power simply causes a thermal plant to switch from generation to standby, in which mode it continues to burn fuel." Author Rosenbloom goes on to take a look at the experience with industrial wind of Ireland, Denmark and Germany and concludes that wind energy's benefits are largely illusory and do not warrant the degradation of rural and wild areas.
1 Oct 2005

Towards A Wind Energy Climatology At Advanced Turbine Hub Heights

Nrel_wind_energy_climatology_thumb NREL has started to analyze the wind climatology at advanced turbine hub heights based on data measured on existing tall towers in Kansas, Indiana, and Minnesota. The highest measurement level at these towers was 90–110 m. There are two significant findings from the analysis: (1) the difference in wind resource at tall tower sites in the central United States seems to be controlled by the strength of the noctural and southerly winds; and (2) the average wind shear exponent of 50-100 m at tall towers in the central United States is influenced by strong southerly winds and is significantly higher than the 0.143 often used for conservative estimates of the wind resource at turbine hub height.
1 Jun 2005

Working Paper: Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration

Dti3_20robin_20oakley_20atl_1__thumb This working paper is made available by the Resource and Environmental economics and Policy Analysis (REPA) Research Group at the University of Victoria. REPA working papers have not been peer reviewed and contain preliminary research findings. They shall not be cited without the expressed written consent of the author(s). Editor's Note: The authors’ conclusion regarding ‘effective capacity’, i.e. the measure of a generator’s contribution to system reliability that is tied to meeting peak loads, is that it “is difficult to generalize, as it is a highly site-specific quantity determined by the correlation between wind resource and load” and that ‘values range from 26 % to 0% of rated capacity.” This conclusion is based, in part, on a 2003 study by the California Energy Commission that estimated that three wind farm aggregates- Altamont, San Gorgonio and Tehachpi, which collectively represent 75% of California’s deployed wind capacity- had relative capacity credits of 26.0%, 23.9% and 22.0% respectively. It is noteworthy that during California’s Summer ’06 energy crunch, as has been widely publicized in the press, wind power produced at 254.6 MW (10.2% of wind’s rated capacity of 2,500MW) at the time of peak demand (on July 24th) and over the preceding seven days (July 17-23) produced at 89.4 to 113.0 MW, averaging only 99.1 MW at the time of peak demand or just 4% of rated capacity.
1 Jun 2005

Working Paper: Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration

Dti3_20robin_20oakley_20atl_1__thumb This working paper is made available by the Resource and Environmental economics and Policy Analysis (REPA) Research Group at the University of Victoria. REPA working papers have not been peer reviewed and contain preliminary research findings. They shall not be cited without the expressed written consent of the author(s). Editor's Note: The authors’ conclusion regarding ‘effective capacity’, i.e. the measure of a generator’s contribution to system reliability that is tied to meeting peak loads, is that it “is difficult to generalize, as it is a highly site-specific quantity determined by the correlation between wind resource and load” and that ‘values range from 26 % to 0% of rated capacity.” This conclusion is based, in part, on a 2003 study by the California Energy Commission that estimated that three wind farm aggregates- Altamont, San Gorgonio and Tehachpi, which collectively represent 75% of California’s deployed wind capacity- had relative capacity credits of 26.0%, 23.9% and 22.0% respectively. It is noteworthy that during California’s Summer ’06 energy crunch, as has been widely publicized in the press, wind power produced at 254.6 MW (10.2% of wind’s rated capacity of 2,500MW) at the time of peak demand (on July 24th) and over the preceding seven days (July 17-23) produced at 89.4 to 113.0 MW, averaging only 99.1 MW at the time of peak demand or just 4% of rated capacity.
1 Jun 2005

Wind Power Facility Siting Case Studies: Community Response

National_wind_coordinating_committee_siting_studies_thumb BBC Research & Consulting's 2005 report for the National Wind Coordinating Committee that studies 9 wind plant sitings in an effort to identify circumstances that distinguish welcomed projects from projects that were not accepted by communities.
1 Jun 2005

Transmission Issues Associated with Renewable Energy in Texas

Renewablestransmissi_thumb This 'informal white paper' authored by the renewable energy industry and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas addresses the impact of wind's intermittency on the need for the development of comparable capacities of reliable sources that can be called upon when the wind is not blowing. It contains a particularly interesting chart that characterizes different energy sources as 'base load', 'peak load' and 'intermittent' with their associated benefits and drawbacks. Wind is deemed 'intermittent' with the following benefits (no emissions, no fuel costs, stable cost, low operating cost) and drawbacks (not dispatchable, not responsive, transmission needs, low peak value).
28 Mar 2005

http://www.windaction.org/posts?location=USA&p=2&topic=Technology&type=Document
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