The 'how to' guide to criteria for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks from sound
Community noise experts George W. Kamperman and Richard R. James provide guidelines for siting industrial wind turbines with a focus on preventing health risks due to sound emissions from the turbines. This document offers important background information that should be read by all those involved in the siting and approving of wind energy facilities. The introduction to the paper is included below. The full document can be accessed by clicking on the link at the bottom of the page.
"A subset of society should not be forced to bear the cost of a benefit for the larger society."
A new source of community noise is spreading rapidly across the rural U.S. countryside.
Industrial-scale wind turbines (WT), a common sight in many European countries, are now actively promoted by federal and state governments in the U.S. as a way to reduce coal-powered electrical generation and global warming. The presence of industrial wind projects is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years, given the tax incentives and other economic and political support currently available for renewable energy projects in the U.S.
As a part of the widespread enthusiasm for renewable energy, state and local governments are promoting ”Model Ordinances” for siting industrial wind farms which establish limits for noise and other potential hazards. These are used to determine where wind projects can be located in communities, which are predominantly rural and often extremely quiet during the evening and night. Yet, complaints about noise from residents near existing industrial wind turbine installations are common. This raises serious questions about whether current state and local government siting guidelines for noise are sufficiently protective for people living close to the wind turbine developments. Research is emerging that suggests significant health effects are associated with living too close to modern industrial wind turbines. Research into the computer modeling and other methods used to determine the layout of wind turbine developments, including the distance from nearby residences, is at the same time showing that the output of the models may not accurately predict sound propagation. The models are used to make decisions about how close a turbine can be to a home or other sensitive property. The errors in the predicted sound levels can easily result in inadequate setback distances thus exposing the property owner to noise pollution and potential health risks. Current information suggests the models should not be used for siting decisions unless known errors and tolerances are applied to the results.
Our formal presentation and paper on this topic (Simple guidelines for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks) is an abbreviated version of this essay. The formal paper was presented to the Institute of Noise Control Engineers (INCE) at its July Noise-Con 2008 conference in Detroit, MI, A copy of the paper is included at the end of this document. The formal paper covered the community noise studies performed in response to complaints, research on health issues related to wind turbine noise, critiques of noise studies performed by consultants working for the wind developer, and research/technical papers on wind turbine sound immissions and related topics. The formal paper also reviewed sound studies conducted by consultants for governments, the wind turbine owner, or the local residents for a number of sites with known health or annoyance problems. The purpose was to determine if a set of simple guidelines using dBA and dBC sound levels can serve as the ‘safe’ siting guidelines for noise and its effects on communities and people. The papers considered in our review included, but were not limited to, those listed in Tables 1-4 on pages 2 through 4 of the Noise-Con document.
This essay expands upon the Noise–Con paper and includes information to support the findings and recommended criteria. We are proposing very specific, yet reasonably simple to implement and assess criteria for audible and non-audible sound on adjacent properties and also present a sample noise ordinance and the procedures needed for pre-construction sound test, computer model requirements and follow-up tests (including those for assessing compliance).
The purpose of this expanded paper is to outline a rational, evidence-based set of criteria for industrial wind turbine siting in rural communities, using:
1) A review of the European and other wind turbine siting criteria and existing studies of the prevalence of noise problems after construction;
2) Primary review of sound studies done in a variety of locations in response to wind turbine noise complaints (Table 1);
3) Review of publications on health issues for those living in close proximity to wind turbines (Table 2);
4) Review of critiques of pre-construction developer noise impact statements (Table 3); and
5) Review of technical papers on noise propagation and qualities from wind turbines (Table 4).
The Tables are on pages 2-4 of the formal paper. We also cite standard international criteria for community noise levels and allowances for low-frequency noise.
The specific sections are:
1. Introduction (This section)
2. Results of Literature Review and Sound Studies
3. Development of Siting Criteria
4. Proposed Sound Limits
5. How to Include the Recommended Criteria in Local or State Noise Ordinances
6. Elements of a Wind Energy System Licensing Ordinance
7. Measurement Procedures (Appendix to Ordinance)
8. The Noise-Con 2008 paper “Simple guidelines for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks” with revisions not in the paper included in the conference’s Proceedings.
The construction of large WT (industrial wind turbines) projects in the U.S. is a relatively recent phenomenon, with most projects built after 2000. Other countries, especially in Europe, have been using wind energy systems (WES) since the early 1990’s or earlier. These earlier installations generally used turbines of less than 1 MW capacity with hub heights under 61 m (200 feet). Now, many of these earlier turbines reaching the end of their useful life, are being replaced with the larger 1.5 to 3 MW units. Thus, the concepts and recommendations in this article, developed for the 1.5 MW and larger turbines being build in the U.S, may also be applicable abroad.