From the conclusion of this study: The purpose of this article is to compare the qualitative and quantitative methodologies and to describe the benefits of having used a qualitative methodology, specifically Grounded Theory in order to study why some people contemplate vacating/abandoning their homes when living within 10 km of industrial wind turbines. ...As described in this article, the siting of industrial wind energy facilities in rurally populated areas can challenge a quantitative methodology due to such factors as low population density, obtaining a sufficient sample, and challenges to achieving statistical power and statistical significance. Grounded Theory methodology served as a practical toolThis important analysis validates the claim that people living in proximity to industrial scale wind turbines who have made house decisions to leave their homes did so based on the impacts of the turbines.
Sandstone Creek Solar LLC sought to construct a solar energy facility on 850 acres of agriculture land in Benton Township in Eaton County, MIchigan. The township did not have zoning at the time and relied on county zoning for land use regulation. When it became apparent that the County would support approval of the solar project Benton's Trustees adopted an interim zoning ordinance that permitted small-scale solar energy systems in districts zoned for industrial use and permitted large-scale solar energy systems in industrial districts by special use permit. Sandstone Creek and landowner, Gary Walters, filed a suit challenging Benton's actions. In this decision the court upholds the lower court's decision that found the Benton Township acted lawfully. The full decision can be accessed at the document links on this page.
The Madison County Board of Supervisors in Iowa approved a new county wind ordinance on December 22, 2020. Specifics of the ordinance are provided below. The full ordinance can be downloaded from the document links on this page.
This important report written by a cardiologist provides a critically important, fact-based review of what he's learned and witnessed regarding the impacts of industrial wind turbines on human health. The executive summary and purpose of the report are provided below. The full report can be downloaded from this page. Windaction wishes to extend its special thanks to Dr. Johnson for taking the time to prepare this report.
This useful resource lists a host of protective land use ordinances adopted in different jurisdictions in the State of Michigan for siting industrial wind energy turbines. A sample set of ordinances is provided below. The full list can be downloaded from this page.
This useful paper explains how the cost of offshore wind has increased in the United Kingdom and how government accounting of the costs have failed to reveal this fact. The paper examines how the actual costs of both onshore and offshore wind generation have not fallen significantly. In fact, the authors report that the operating costs of new capacity have increased significantly for both onshore and offshore wind farms while the operating costs for existing wind farms have increased more rapidly as the turbines aged. The full paper can be accessed by clicking on the document links on this page.
This study examines changes in peat bogs resulting from peat extraction and grazing. The study also found that a far more significant impact to these land forms in the long term, with far greater and more rapid change has occurred as a result of windfarm construction. The authors write that "Although the installation of individual turbines over blanket bog often results in the extraction of peat in isolated locations, the associated infrastructure of tracks and electrical cable conduits has wider impact not only on the hydrology, but also on peatland geomorphology." According to the report "Windfarm installations have already significantly altered the functioning of some of these ecosystems, and without urgent protection some of the blanket bogs identified here may soon be lost. Action of a most urgent nature is needed from the governments of Cantabria and Castilla y León in order to retain what remains and restore these systems to important natural carbon sinks." The full report can be accessed by selecting the document links on this page.
This email from RPM Access confirms the company's cancellation of the Washburn Wind energy facility. The 35-turbine (70 MW) project to be constructed in Black Hawk County Iowa was first approved in a 3-2 vote of the Board of Adjustment in April 2018. In early 2019, the company secured an extension from the county to delay start of construction until July 1, 2020. A law suit filed by county resident, Harold Youngblut, argued the county ordinance was not followed. The court ruled against Mr. Youngblut which he appealed. RMP Access insisted that the suit hindered its ability to find buyers for the energy.
This complaint in federal court challenges the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (“BIA”) notice of record of decision (ROD) authorizing the issuance of a 25-year lease of land (with a possible 13-year extension) between the Campo Band of Diegueño Mission Indians and Terra-Gen Development Company LLC (“Terra-Gen”), allowing Terra-Gen to develop, construct, the Campo Wind Facilities on the Reservation, and the Boulder Brush Facilities on adjacent private lands. The Campo Wind Facilities would consist of sixty 586-foot tall turbines, three 374-foot meteorological towers, 15 miles of new access roads, an electrical connection and communication system, a collector substation, an operation and maintenance facility, a gen-tie line, and other components needed for construction and operation. A portion of the complaint is provided below. The full complaint can be downloaded from the document links on this page.
This study explored why some people living in proximity to wind turbines contemplate permanently vacating their homes while others contemplate doing so. The abstract of the report is provided below. The full report can be accessed by clicking the links on this page.
This important paper found that the population viability of bird species can be very sensitive to proportionally small increases in mortality.The authors found that just a 5% increase in existing mortality resulted in a 9%–77% reduction in the population of the species after 10 years. A portion of the report is provided below. The full report can be found by selecting the document links on this page.
This informative report validates the testimonies of homeowners that were filed in numerous appeals involving wind energy facilities approved for construction in Ontario Canada. The abstract of the report and an excerpt of the paper's discussion are provided below. The full report, which includes the list of the wind energy appeals by case number, can be accessed at the document links provided on this page.
Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) analyzed the performance of 917 wind plants in the United States and found steep declines in performance after the first 10 years of operation. The performance drop coincided with the plants losing their eligibility for the production tax credits (PTC). This could signal project owners are less interested in maintaining the turbines once the tax credits have ended. The PTC is available to operating projects during the first 10-years a project is in service. The summary of the paper is provided below. The full paper can be downloaded via the links on this page.
Travis Air Force Base Mid-Air Collision Avoidance pamphlets (MACA) for 2007, 2011, 2017, and 2020. In 2011, the MACA was amended to warn about the area over a wind turbine facility as being high-risk for mid-air collisions due to the impact of spinning turbine blades on radar. This warning did not appear in the 2007 MACA. At that time, the impact of the blades on digital radar systems was not well understood. Analog radars are not impacted by the turbines. The area continues to be a high risk for collision and pilots are required to fly with transponders turned on. The pamphlets can be downloaded by clicking the document links on this page. The single page shown below is taken from the 2011 pamphlet.
This court decision concerns the land use appeal initiated by Phillip Malitsch and Christopher Mangold against a Notice of Deemed Approval assumed by Atlantic Wind for a project in Bethlehem, PA. Penn Forest Township and Atlantic Wind each filed to present additional evidence against the appeal, providing testimony on project infrastructure and turbine noise. The court raised concerns regarding Atlantic Wind's inexact turbine noise predictions and the project's negative impacts on the area's potable water supply. The judge ultimately ruled in favor of the plaintiffs and vacated the Notice of Deemed Approval, and denied the special exceptions Atlantic Wind had requested. Portions of the court decision are cited below. The entire decision can be accessed by selecting the document link on this page.
The testimony of Robert Scott that is accessible from this page describes the possible visual impacts of the Skipjack offshore wind energy facility proposed for off the coast of Maryland. The developers of the Skipjack facility are proposing to use the Haliade-X1 twelve-megawatt turbines. According to Mr. Sullivan, the Haliade-X turbines are 70% larger than the turbines that were originally proposed for the site and for which a permit was granted. The turbines will be visible to the unaided eye at distances greater than 36 statute miles, with turbine blade movement visible up to 29 statute miles, and often visible at 24 statute miles. Mr. Sullivan's testimony was provided to the Maryland PSC on behalf of Ocean City, MD. Mr. Sullivan's full testimony can be downloaded by clicking on the document links on this page.
The North Texas Heritage Association sent this letter to APEX Clean Energy raising serious concerns over APEX's proposed project, Black Angus, and the threat to whooping crane populations. The Black Angus project and an unrelated wind project abutting it, will obstruct the centerline of the whooping cranes migratory corridor, putting at risk the sparse whooping crane population currently standing at only 505 in the wild. At minimum, the Heritage Association requests that APEX follow federal guidelines to adhere to environmental law, including the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act, as well as follow the procedure for obtaining an incidental take permit (ITP) from the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Preferably, the Heritage Association recommends that the project be moved to a less environmentally sensitive location. An excerpt of the letter is provided below. The full report can be downloaded from this page.
Apex Clean Energy and EDF Renewables have each proposed large wind energy facilities to be situated in Clay County, Texas. The project locations fall squarely within the Whooping Crane migratory corridor and are recognized as stop-over habitat for the birds. Wildlife biologist, Jennifer Blair of Blair Wildlife Consulting, prepared this assessment of the likely impacts to Whooping Crane if the projects are constructed. The report also provides a useful summary of the extent to which wind energy development has been allowed to penetrate the limited migration corridor of Whooping Cranes. A short excerpt of the Blair report is provided below. The full report can be downloaded from this page.