The stubborn competitive gap between renewable generation and its rivals explains why renewable-energy lobbyists on both the state and federal levels are trying to get governments to set quotas, and not just continue or expand current subsidies.
The document critically reviews the adverse effects of community noise, including interference with communication, noise-induced hearing loss, annoyance responses, and effects on sleep, the cardiovascular and psychophysiological systems, performance, productivity, and social behavior. Noise measures or indices based only on energy summation are not enough for the characterization of most noise environments. This is particularly true when concerned with health assessment and predictions. It is equally important to measure and display the maximum values of the noise fluctuations, preferably combined with a measure of the number of noise events, and to assess whether the noise includes a large proportion of low frequency components.
Although the nation's wind potential is very large, only part of it can be exploited economically. The economic viability of wind power will vary from utility to utility. Important factors not addressed in this study that influence land availability and wind electric potential include production/demand match (seasonal and daily), transmission and access constraints, public acceptance, and other technological and institutional constraints. Editor's Note: Though dated, this is a worthwhile read if read carefully.
Cement manufacturing is the third largest cause of man-made carbon dioxide emissions. While fossil fuel combustion and deforestation each produce significantly more carbon dioxide (CO2), cement-making is responsible for approximately 2.5% of total worldwide emissions from industrial sources (energy plus manufacturing sectors).
This paper, presented at the Windpower ’87 Conference & Exposition in San Francisco by N.D. Kelley, a physicist at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado validates the fact that turbines (both upwind and downwind) produce low-frequency sound emissions that can negatively impact humans within their homes. Although modern wind turbines are different from those studied in 1987, the research is significant in that it demonstrates the need to test for low-frequency sound emissions and to do so inside buildings.
This status report released by the California Energy Commission discusses the status of the technology, current and proposed development, regulatory processes, issues hindering development, and recommended actions needed to resolve identified issues. The section of the report on Noise and Aesthetics is provided below. Audible and low frequency impulse noise were reported as problems with the turbines. The full report can be accessed from the links on this page.
This report summarizes extensive research by staff of the Solar Energy Research Institute and its subcontractors conducted to establish the or1g1n and possible amelioration of acoustic disturbances associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed near Boone, North Carolina. Results have shown that the most probable source of this acoustic annoyance was the transient, 'unsteady aerodynamic lift imparted to the turbine blades as they passed through the lee wakes of the large, cylindrical tower supports. Nearby residents were annoyed by the low-frequency, acoustic impulses propagated into the structures in which the complainants lived. The situation was aggravated further by a complex sound propagation process controlled by terrain and atmospheric focusing. Several techniques for reducing the abrupt, unsteady blade load transients were researched and are discussed.
This case, before the New Jersey Superior Court, represents one of the first instances of a nuisance case brought against an operating wind turbine due to noise. The court found that the defendants' wind turbine constituted an "actionable nuisance".
Clipper's wind turbine products and specifications are available by clicking on the web link.
Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all. This variability does affect the value of the wind power……Editor’s Note: This ‘fact sheet’ is, on the whole, a comparatively fair report. The definitions provided for capacity factor, efficiency, reliability, dispatchability, and availability are useful. Its discussion of back-up generation, marginal emissions and Germany & Denmark, however, is disingenuous as is, to a lesser degree, its discussion of capacity factor and availability. IWA's comments (updated October '06) on these issues follow selected extracts from the 'fact sheet' below.
Vestas' current wind turbine products and related specifications are available by clicking on the web link.
The Link Below will take you to a site where wind resource maps are available for most states.
This document has been prepared by Terry Matilsky, Professor of Physics at Rutgers University. For almost 40 years, he has been funded by NASA and other federal agencies to do data analysis from various scientific satellites; to examine what information tells us about a phenomena, and draw rational and solid, scientific conclusions from them.
Suzlon's wind turbine products and related specifications are available by clicking on the web link.
General Electric's wind turbine products and related specifications are available by clicking on the web link.
Appendix B: Sample Local Government Requirements for Wind Energy Conversion Systems Appendix B of The National Wind Coordinating Committees' handbook contains summaries of nine California County ordinances dealing with wind facilities.
Eric Rosenbloom's primer on the units one tends to encounter in researching energy issues.
Dan Boone takes a close look at the landscape impact of the Mountaineer Wind Energy (WV) and Meyersdale (PA) industrial wind plants.
"After the wind resource and project site have been determined and the community outreach effort has been started, the next step is to apply for the necessary permits. The primary permits needed to construct most community– scale wind power projects will be the local permits: building, zoning, and/or conservation, as applicable to a specific site. Additionally, the project will need to be filed with the FAA and with the operators of the New England electrical grid. Depending on the site, other permits may come into play. This document outlines these basic permits and also lists other authorities that may have jurisdiction over community–scale wind power projects. This fact-sheet focuses on land–based commuity scale wind power projects with medium or large turbines."
Siemens' wind turbine products and specifications are available by clicking on the web link.