Documents filed under Safety
Flight for Life issued a notice to local law enforcement agencies and fire departments in Wisconsin advising them that they will not transfer patients from areas where wind turbines are located. The wording on the notice is below. A copy of the notice can be downloaded by clicking on the link below.
The purpose of this document is to facilitate effective cohabitation between such existing systems and wind energy systems through the effective and early sharing of information.
This brief document provides a case study of a wind energy facility in Texas and the effect of lightning strikes on wind turbine blades. Despite the 1.5 MW turbine blades having been equipped with lightning protection, the blades failed as a result of lightning strikes.
Here is a reprint of an email about ice throw at Green Mountain Power's Searsburg wind energy facility in Searsburg Vermont. The email was written by John Zimmerman to an American Wind Energy Association listserv in 2000. Mr. Zimmerman managed the development of the Searsburg facility
The official OR-OSHA report on the August 2007 turbine collapse at the Klondike III wind facility in Oregon can be accessed below. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. was fined $10,500 and cited in part for failing to properly train personnel.
These internal FPL employee meeting communications were anonymously released to the St. Lucie County Attorney Dan McIntyre. The documents show clear knowledge that FPL was aware of potential risks to their nuclear power plant if the company proceeded with a wind energy facility nearby.
This short GE Energy document explains the risk in the event of extreme wind conditions including hurricane or tornado and any mitigation. Note, the document acknowledges the risk of blade throws and tower collapse.
This interview with retired EMS pilot Ray Slavik was submitted to the Calumet County Ad Hoc Committee researching proposed ordinances governing the placement of wind turbines in the county. The interview provides important insight into controling an aircraft in the vicinity of utility-scale turbines.
Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Airspace Branch, ASW-520 2601 Meacham Blvd. Fort Worth, TX 76137-0520
Thirty-two page Mechanical Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Vestas V-90 3.0MW industrial wind turbine, onshore and offshore.
Some elements to consider in policy, planning, and public relations
This chapter provides guidelines for the marking and lighting of wind turbine farms. For the purposes of this advisory circular, wind turbine farms are defined as a wind turbine development that contains more than three (3) turbines of heights over 200 feet above ground level. The recommended marking and lighting of these structures is intended to provide day and night conspicuity and to assist pilots in identifying and avoiding these obstacles.
Professor Terry Matilsky, associate professor of physics and astronomy at Rutgers University, addresses the kinetics of ice throw.
A compilation as of November 1, 2006 of turbine accidents in the USA and abroad by accident type, date, site, state/country and turbine model.
The California Wind Energy Collaborative was tasked to look at barriers to new wind energy development in the state. Planning commissions in the state have developed setback standards to reduce the risk of damage or injury from fragments resulting from wind turbine rotor failures. These standards are usually based on overall turbine height. With the trend toward larger capacity, taller towers and longer blades, modern wind turbines can be "squeezed out" of parcels thus reducing the economic viability of new wind developments. Current setback standards and their development are reviewed. The rotor failure probability is discussed and public domain statistics are reviewed. The available documentation shows rotor failure probability in the 1-in-1000 per turbine per year range. The analysis of the rotor fragment throw event is discussed in simplified terms. The range of the throw is highly dependent on the release velocity, which is a function of the turbine tip speed. The tip speed of wind turbines does not tend to increase with turbine size, thus offering possible relief to setback standards. Six analyses of rotor fragment risks were reviewed. The analyses do not particularly provide guidance for setbacks. Recommendations are made to use models from previous analyses for developing setbacks with an acceptable hazard probability.
This report focuses on the effects of wind farms on air defense and missile warning radars and the resulting potential impact on military readiness. Its scope is limited to these specific subjects and is based on the current level of understanding regarding interactions between such defense systems and state-of-the-art wind turbines.........The results from those flight trials documented that state-of-the-art utility-class wind turbines can have a significant impact on the operational capabilities of military air defense radar systems. The results demonstrated that the large radar cross section of a wind turbine combined with the Doppler frequency shift produced by its rotating blades can impact the ability of a radar to discriminate the wind turbine from an aircraft. Those tests also demonstrated that the wind farms have the potential to degrade target tracking capabilities as a result of shadowing and clutter effects.
The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are reference documents designed to provide project developers, financiers, facility managers, and other decision makers with relevant industry background and technical information. This information supports actions aimed at avoiding, minimizing, and controlling EHS impacts during the construction, operation, and decommissioning phases of a project or facility.
Neither aviation nor the wind energy industry is at a steady state and both can be expected to evolve in ways which may impact the other. Therefore, it is expected that this CAP will be a living document, which will be updated to reflect the outcome of any further research into the interaction between wind turbine developments and aviation. It will also be revised at intervals to take account of changes in regulations, feedback from industry, and recognised best practice.
A7 Energy's appeal against the Easington District Council for refusing to grant planning permission with respect to a wind plant consisting of 2 x 2.3MW turbines was dismissed by D. L. Burrows, an inspector appointed by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. The principal reason for dismissal was adverse impact the turbines would have on the activities of Shotten airfield.