Typhoon Maemi struck Miyakojima Island on September 11, 2003 with an average wind speed of 38.4m/s and a maximum gust of 74.1m/s, recorded at Miyakojima meteorological station. All six wind turbines operated by Okinawa Electric Power Company were extensively damaged. Two Micon M750/400kW turbines collapsed by the buckling of the towers and one Enercon E40/500kW turbine turned over due to the destruction of the foundation. The other three experienced broken blades and damaged nacelle covers.
Library filed under Safety
A man walks near a demolished wind turbine in Goldenstedt, nortwestern Germany, Monday Oct. 28, 2002. The 70 meter (230 foot) high turbine fell during the heavy storms that hit Germany.
ADVISORY CIRCULAR: AC 70/7460-1K Obstruction Marking and Lighting-- This change amends the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) standards for marking and lighting structures to promote aviation safety. This change is effective August 1, 2000.....A sponsor proposing any type of construction or alteration of a structure that may affect the National Airspace System (NAS) is required under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR part 77) to notify the FAA by completing the Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration form (FAA Form 7460-1). The form should be sent to the FAA Regional Air Traffic Division office having jurisdiction over the area where the planned construction or alteration would be located.
"This paper provides an overview of the issues affecting wind turbine operations in cold weather with a special emphasis given on atmospheric conditions prevailing in the Northeast United States. The first section describes previous and more recent wind energy projects in cold weather areas. In the second section, environmental elements most likely to impact on the operation of wind turbines in cold weather are introduced: low temperatures, icing and snow. It also presents various climatic situations and their specific behavior in cold weather. The third section suggests some solutions to problems identified in the previous section. In addition, this paper suggests ideas of further research on the operation of wind turbines in cold climate. It also identifies organizations interested by similar issues whose cooperation would be beneficial."
"Developers and owners of wind turbines have a duty to ensure the safety of the general public and their own staff. However, there are currently no guidelines for dealing with potential dangers arising from ice thrown off wind turbines. This puts developers, owners, planning authorities and insurers in a difficult position. To rectify this situation, the work presented here has commenced in order to produce an authoritative set of guidelines. Initial work has resulted in the development of a risk assessment methodology which has been used to demonstrate that the risk of being struck by ice thrown from a turbine is diminishingly small at distances greater than approximately 250 m from the turbine in a climate where moderate icing occurs."