Library filed under Zoning/Planning from USA
Zoning is a complicated problem. Zoning regulations vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. There are perhaps 25,000 local zoning jurisdictions in the nation. Further, existing zoning laws seldom address distributed wind turbines. In this paper, we will highlight the experiences of veterans of zoning battles that illustrate this market barrier. We will look at the option of local action on distributed wind zoning to highlight certain shortcomings of this approach. Last, we will consider examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies, and we will present recommendations for action by the wind industry to pursue constructive and effective zoning solutions for distributed wind power. Editor's Note: This paper, presented at the Windpower 2005 Conference held in Denver, Colorado May 15-18, recommends 'limited state preemption of home rule' as the most viable approach for wind advocates to eliminate zoning barriers to distributed wind.
THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN ENACT: SEC. 16J. (1) AS USED IN THIS SECTION, A "WIND ENERGY SYSTEM" OR "SYSTEM" MEANS A WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM. (2) A WIND ENERGY SYSTEM SHALL BE PERMITTED IN ALL ZONING 3 CLASSIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO ALL OF THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS:"
This 'informal white paper' authored by the renewable energy industry and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas addresses the impact of wind's intermittency on the need for the development of comparable capacities of reliable sources that can be called upon when the wind is not blowing. It contains a particularly interesting chart that characterizes different energy sources as 'base load', 'peak load' and 'intermittent' with their associated benefits and drawbacks. Wind is deemed 'intermittent' with the following benefits (no emissions, no fuel costs, stable cost, low operating cost) and drawbacks (not dispatchable, not responsive, transmission needs, low peak value).
In many parts of the country, wind farms are being installed to alleviate the need to build more electrical generating plants. These wind farms can have a profound effect on your public safety, utility, and governmental microwave systems by chopping and reflecting the microwave beam.
Manhattan (Kansas) benefits greatly from the scenic and intrinsic values of Flint Hills ranching landscapes and the from the stewardship of ranch landowners who struggle to preserve a way of life in the Flint Hills in Riley County and the two adjacent counties to the south and southeast.
Attached is a Wind Energy Easement Outline that discusses in some detail various provisions that can be found in wind energy easement agreements.
With the emergence of recent proposals, there appears to be growing interest in expanding renewable energy sources in New Hampshire. New Hampshire’s government has taken several steps to encourage the use of renewables, including setting net metering guidelines for small-scale generators (less than 25 kW) of photovoltaics, hydroelectric, and wind.1 Net metering guidelines in New Hampshire require that utilities purchase any electricity generated by small scale generators in excess of what they use. Further developing renewables beyond small-scale generation, particularly wind, can help New Hampshire increase the proportion of energy generated from renewable sources. In fact, developing the full potential of wind resources in the state holds great promise for helping to meet the state’s energy needs.
We are in continued public hearings to consider the application of the Desert Claim Wind Farm. I would like to remind everybody that the record is closed at this point for public testimony. What we are doing this evening is we have taken receipt - and we did that actually midpoint last week - of the revised development agreement for the project. What we intend to do this evening is to engage in Board discussion in terms of setting a timeline for further review and any other comment as the Board deems appropriate and then ideally with instructions to staff in terms of how we proceed from this date.
Background and Purpose: Vermont’s energy needs are growing while its future energy sources remain uncertain. At the same time, Agency lands are under ever-increasing pressure to serve more uses and needs. Part of meeting Vermont’s future energy needs will likely involve development of additional renewable energy sources in Vermont. The role of Agency of Natural Resource (ANR) lands in accommodating wind energy and other renewable energy projects has been the subject of recent public debate and is the focus of this policy.
A new simulation finds serious and previously unrecognized environmental threats from massive wind farms in the American Great Plains. A recent study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research by scientists from Princeton and Duke Universities indicates massive wind farms would significantly increase local surface drying and soil heating, which in turn would impact agricultural or range use on or near the wind farm. The modeling experiment used current wind turbine and rotor technology to assess local climate impacts from a simulated wind farm with 10,000 turbines, arranged in a simple, square array of 100 by 100 turbines, each spaced one kilometer apart.
It was the intention of the Legislature that the protection and enhancement of the environment, human and community resources should be given appropriate weight with social and economic considerations in determining public policy, and that those factors be considered together in reaching decisions on proposed activities. Accordingly, it is the intention of this Part that a suitable balance of social, economic and environmental factors be incorporated into the planning and decision-making processes of state, regional and local agencies.
THIS DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENT (“Agreement”) is entered into and effective this __ day of _______, 2004, by and between Kittitas County, a Washington municipal corporation (“County”) and Desert Claim Wind Power LLC, a Washington limited liability company (“Desert Claim”). This Agreement is made pursuant to Revised Code of Washington (“RCW”) 36.70B.170, Kittitas County Code (“KCC”) Chapter 15A.11, and KCC Chapter 17.61A, and relates to the Desert Claim Wind Power Project.
Editor's Note This is essentially a 'how to' guide for wind energy developers based on issues and problems encountered prior to July 2004.
there are few if any places in the entire Midwest more worthy of preservation as an example of the great Midwestern prairie than those Wabaunsee County vistas
Senior planner Darryl Crawford, of the Central Shenandoah Planning District Commission, handed planners a list of recommendations to consider for wind energy permit applications last week, telling the commission it should determine whether Highland County wants industrial wind plants within its borders. A summary of Crawford’s 20-page set of recommendations is (attached):
The streamlined rules establish new procedures for demonstrating wind energy facility compliance with existing noise control standards. These standards are used by the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council to evaluate the location of new energy facilities.
"In a petition filed on March 12, 2002, Flat Rock Windpower LLC (Flat Rock or the company), requests that it be issued a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN) pursuant to Public Service Law (PSL) §68 for its proposed wind powered generating facility (Facility) to be located in Lewis County, in the Towns of Lowville, Martinsburg, and Harrisburg. Flat Rock also requested that it be lightly regulated as an electric corporation under the Public Service Law. Flat Rock moved for an expedited proceeding on a non-contested application for its CPCN, pursuant to 16 NYCRR §21.10. "
Counsel for the Environment (CFE) appreciates this opportunity to comment on the Kittitas Valley Wind Power Project (KVWPP) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). CFE takes no position in support or opposition of the KVWPP at this time. The following comments seek to ensure the Final Environmental Impact Statement provides the public with the most detailed information possible on the environmental impacts of the proposed wind power project.
Shadow Flicker Shadow flicker is caused by the sun rising or setting behind the rotating blades of a turbine. The shadow created by the rotating blades can cause alternating light and dark shadows to be cast on roads or nearby premises, including the windows of residences, resulting in distraction and annoyance to the residents. A related phenomenon, strobe effect, is caused by the chopping of sunlight behind moving blades, similar to the effect of the setting sun behind trees when driving along a roadway in the winter. Both of these phenomena are factors in the visual impact of a wind turbine project, and some argue that they are a threat to health and safety. They could also be considered a nuisance to nearby property owners.