Documents filed under Safety from USA

FAA Advisory Circular: Obstruction Marking and Lighting

Faa_turbine_lighting__ac70_7460_1k_thumb This chapter provides guidelines for the marking and lighting of wind turbine farms. For the purposes of this advisory circular, wind turbine farms are defined as a wind turbine development that contains more than three (3) turbines of heights over 200 feet above ground level. The recommended marking and lighting of these structures is intended to provide day and night conspicuity and to assist pilots in identifying and avoiding these obstacles.
12 Feb 2007

Permitting setbacks for wind turbines in California

Permitting_setback_requirements_thumb The California Wind Energy Collaborative was tasked to look at barriers to new wind energy development in the state. Planning commissions in the state have developed setback standards to reduce the risk of damage or injury from fragments resulting from wind turbine rotor failures. These standards are usually based on overall turbine height. With the trend toward larger capacity, taller towers and longer blades, modern wind turbines can be "squeezed out" of parcels thus reducing the economic viability of new wind developments. Current setback standards and their development are reviewed. The rotor failure probability is discussed and public domain statistics are reviewed. The available documentation shows rotor failure probability in the 1-in-1000 per turbine per year range. The analysis of the rotor fragment throw event is discussed in simplified terms. The range of the throw is highly dependent on the release velocity, which is a function of the turbine tip speed. The tip speed of wind turbines does not tend to increase with turbine size, thus offering possible relief to setback standards. Six analyses of rotor fragment risks were reviewed. The analyses do not particularly provide guidance for setbacks. Recommendations are made to use models from previous analyses for developing setbacks with an acceptable hazard probability.
1 Nov 2006

The Effect of Windmill Farms On Military Readiness

Dodwindfarmreport_thumb This report focuses on the effects of wind farms on air defense and missile warning radars and the resulting potential impact on military readiness. Its scope is limited to these specific subjects and is based on the current level of understanding regarding interactions between such defense systems and state-of-the-art wind turbines.........The results from those flight trials documented that state-of-the-art utility-class wind turbines can have a significant impact on the operational capabilities of military air defense radar systems. The results demonstrated that the large radar cross section of a wind turbine combined with the Doppler frequency shift produced by its rotating blades can impact the ability of a radar to discriminate the wind turbine from an aircraft. Those tests also demonstrated that the wind farms have the potential to degrade target tracking capabilities as a result of shadowing and clutter effects.
1 Sep 2006

A Review of the Science, Literature and Recommendations Concerning Public Safety and Ice Throws from Wind Turbines

Public_safety___ice_throws--doc_submitted_to_delaware_co._planning_dept._thumb During a recent roundtable discussion concerning wind power projects at the Delaware County Historical Society a participant affiliated with two local wind development companies stated that there were three issues where the health and safety impacts were predictable and avoidable---- ice throws, noise, and flicker. Since the statement was made in the presence of planners who are advising towns in the process of writing regulations to protect the health and safety of residents, I felt that a fuller discussion of the known science of these issues was important, and have prepared this report to that end. Editor's Note: Dr. Jaffe's presentation to the Town of Meredith Planning Board on the proposed industrial wind plant vis-a-vis Meredith's 'vision' is available via the link below.
1 Jun 2006

Public Health and Safety: Deficiencies of the New York State Department of State Presentation to Local Officials Concerning Wind Turbines

Public_health_and_safety__and_wind_turbines--deficiencies_of_the_ny_dos_presentation_thumb Dr, Kenneth Jaffe's response to the health and safety content of a June 2006 presentation by the NY State Department of State (DOS) in Delware County, NY. The DOS presentation, which included a discussion of the impact of industrial turbine projects on communities and individuals, is intended to guide local officials in the process of writing regulations. Dr. Jaffe's response addresses what he believes are substantive misstatements, mischaracterizations, biased emphasis and faulty data contained in the DOS presentation.
1 Jun 2006

A Review of the Science, Literature and Recommendations Concerning Public Safety and Ice Throws from Wind Turbines

Public_safety___ice_throws--doc_submitted_to_delaware_co._planning_dept._thumb During a recent roundtable discussion concerning wind power projects at the Delaware County Historical Society a participant affiliated with two local wind development companies stated that there were three issues where the health and safety impacts were predictable and avoidable---- ice throws, noise, and flicker. Since the statement was made in the presence of planners who are advising towns in the process of writing regulations to protect the health and safety of residents, I felt that a fuller discussion of the known science of these issues was important, and have prepared this report to that end. Editor's Note: Dr. Jaffe's presentation to the Town of Meredith Planning Board on the proposed industrial wind plant vis-a-vis Meredith's 'vision' is available via the link below.
1 Jun 2006

Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement Ecogen, LLC Prattsburgh/Italy Wind Farm (NY)

Fgeis_rev1_thumb This Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) has been prepared for the Ecogen, LLC (Ecogen) Prattsburgh/Italy Wind Farm Project (Project) on the behalf of the Lead Agency, the Steuben County Industrial Development Agency (SCIDA). The FGEIS is prepared pursuant to the New York State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQR), Environmental Conservation Law, Article 8, 6NYCRR Part 617, and its implementing regulations.
22 Nov 2005

On The Dangers of Ice & Structural Failure at the Proposed Wachusett Reservation Windfarm

On_the_dangers_of_ice___structural_failure_thumb "Today, the task before the Joint Committee (regarding Bill S40) is to hear from the public on what would appear simple - the giving and taking of “driveway” easements between the Commonwealth’s Wachusett Reservation (Stagecoach Trail) and the Town of Princeton’s legal “right of way” for its wind power site. As well, the town is offering the to transfer to the Commonwealth, ownership of, five acres of their 16-acre wind site. I urge the Joint Committee for Bill S40 to carefully consider the following with regard to your recommendations an for easement exchange and accession of land from Princeton: 1. The Wachusett Wind Site is a 16 acre parcel wholly surrounded by the Wachusett Reservation and flanked within few feet, on three sides, by the well traveled Midstate, Harrington and Stagecoach trails. This portion of the state park is accessible and popular. 2. The present eight windmills are 120-feet high and are proposed to be replaced with two windmills as high as a 35- story building and with blades that stretch as wide as a football field - windmills whose elevation will come with 150- feet of the mountain’s elevation. 3. In the wintertime Wachusett experiences unusual ice storms in number and severity 4. In the wintertime, the windmills accumulate ice - then release it when it melts and falls, when it is blown off by wind or is thrown it off by the rotating blades 5. This ice has put holes in the roofs of utilty buildings on the wind farm and scattters itself across the fully accesssible wind site, the state reservation and hiking trails, threatening state park viisitors The risk associated with being struck windmill ice can be quantified and is relative to one’s distance from the windmills and will increase geometrically with the proposed windmills. 6. Windmills and wind data collection towers at Wachusett have structurally failed five times in twenty years on the Town of Princeton (PMLD) site. This also threatens the state park visitors as well with collapsing metal structures and flying blades. Proposed windmills and data towers will not be installed in compliance withthe manufacuturer’s recommendations and safety warnings."......
5 Jul 2005

Wind Power Facility Siting Case Studies: Community Response

National_wind_coordinating_committee_siting_studies_thumb BBC Research & Consulting's 2005 report for the National Wind Coordinating Committee that studies 9 wind plant sitings in an effort to identify circumstances that distinguish welcomed projects from projects that were not accepted by communities.
1 Jun 2005

Land Use Issues of Wind Turbine Generator Sites- Ice Throw

Otsegowindicethrow_thumb Ice throw is a concern related to the fact that any object at the end of the rotating blades is traveling at a high rate of speed. In the case of a 60 meter turbine (about 200’ diameter), rotating at 20 RPM, the tip of the blade is traveling at just over 140 mph. If the turbine diameter increases to 80 meters, the tip speed increases to just over 187 mph. There are reports of ice having accumulated at the tip of the turbine and upon breaking loose, traveling significant distance......
19 Jan 2004

Kittitas County Desert Claim Wind Power Project: Final EIS

Health___safety_thumb 3.8 Health & Safety Affected Environment, Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures "A number of comments submitted for the scoping process for the Desert Claim project EIS addressed concerns relating to potential health and safety issues. Specific topics indicated in these comments included certain possible hazards that are uniquely associated with wind turbines, such as blade throw and ice throw; health and safety issues associated with electrical and magnetic fields; more common hazards such as fire; and the incidence and impacts of shadow flicker, another phenomenon specific to wind turbines. Section 3.8 addresses these wide-ranging health and safety topics that have been identified as concerns for the environmental review. "
1 Jan 2004

http://www.windaction.org/posts?location=USA&p=3&topic=Safety&type=Document
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