Library from USA

Wind Turbine Noise Issues

Windturbinenoiseissues_thumb "Wind turbines generate noise from multiple mechanical and aerodynamic sources. As the technology has advanced, wind turbines have gotten much quieter, but noise from wind turbines is still a public concern. The problems associated with wind turbine noise have been one of the more studied environmental impact areas in wind energy engineering. Noise levels can be measured, but, similar to other environmental concerns, the public's perception of the noise impact of wind turbines is in part a subjective determination. Noise is defined as any unwanted sound. Concerns about noise depend on 1) the level of intensity, frequency, frequency distribution and patterns of the noise source; 2) background noise levels; 3) the terrain between the emitter and receptor; and 4) the nature of the noise receptor. The effects of noise on people can be classified into three general categories (National Wind Coordinating Committee, 1998): 1) Subjective effects including annoyance, nuisance, dissatisfaction 2) Interference with activities such as speech, sleep, and learning 3) Physiological effects such as anxiety, tinnitus, or hearing loss"........ prepared by the Renewable Energy Research Laboratory Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts at Amherst
1 Mar 2004

The High Cost of Wind

At first gust, wind power sounds like an environmentalist's dream. An endless supply of clean, renewable energy that will help reduce pollution and lower dependence on greenhouse- gas belching power plants and radioactive-waste generating nuclear facilities.
18 Feb 2004

Correspondence re. Bat Kill: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (W.VA)

Arec_batfaq_emails2_1__thumb From: Sam Enfield - Atlantic Renewable Energy Corporation Sent: Thu 2/12/2004 To: Jessica Almy, Humane Society, U.S. Subject: FAQs about Bats and Wind Energy Turbines Sorry, just to be a little more precise that I was in my prior e-mail. ....By way of introduction, I managed the development work on the Backbone Mountain Wind Project, now the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, in West Virginia. Your FAQs about Bats and Wind Energy Turbines is good, although I just wanted to correct one statement about which I have specific knowledge.
12 Feb 2004

Gamesa: Road and platform characteristics for assembly of G87/G90 wind turbine at site

G87_gamesatechspecsonroads_thumb This document prepared by Gamesa contains the specifications for building access roads to service the wind facility as well as the platform areas where each turbine will be sited. Wind developers often cite in their marketing literature that access roads will be 16-feet in width following construction. According to the document, the minimum width of an access road between wind turbines must be 10 meters (33-feet). This width does not include side slopes or additional clearing for culverts.
4 Feb 2004

Visual pollution

Consider this: We could be looking at 1,000 or more wind turbines taller than the Statue of Liberty on the high ridges of the Flint Hills, and they would contribute only about one-tenth of 1 percent of our current electricity use. That simply isn't worth the destruction of our unique Tallgrass Prairie land resource.
26 Jan 2004

Counsel for the Environment comments on Kittitas Valley Wind Power Project (KVWPP) Draft Environmental Impact Statement:

Deiscomments1-2_thumb Counsel for the Environment (CFE) appreciates this opportunity to comment on the Kittitas Valley Wind Power Project (KVWPP) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). CFE takes no position in support or opposition of the KVWPP at this time. The following comments seek to ensure the Final Environmental Impact Statement provides the public with the most detailed information possible on the environmental impacts of the proposed wind power project.
20 Jan 2004

Land Use Issues of Wind Turbine Generator Sites- Ice Throw

Otsegowindicethrow_thumb Ice throw is a concern related to the fact that any object at the end of the rotating blades is traveling at a high rate of speed. In the case of a 60 meter turbine (about 200’ diameter), rotating at 20 RPM, the tip of the blade is traveling at just over 140 mph. If the turbine diameter increases to 80 meters, the tip speed increases to just over 187 mph. There are reports of ice having accumulated at the tip of the turbine and upon breaking loose, traveling significant distance......
19 Jan 2004

Land Use and Zoning Issues Related to Site Development for Utility Scale Wind Turbine Generators

Land_use_and_zoning_issues_thumb Shadow Flicker Shadow flicker is caused by the sun rising or setting behind the rotating blades of a turbine. The shadow created by the rotating blades can cause alternating light and dark shadows to be cast on roads or nearby premises, including the windows of residences, resulting in distraction and annoyance to the residents. A related phenomenon, strobe effect, is caused by the chopping of sunlight behind moving blades, similar to the effect of the setting sun behind trees when driving along a roadway in the winter. Both of these phenomena are factors in the visual impact of a wind turbine project, and some argue that they are a threat to health and safety. They could also be considered a nuisance to nearby property owners.
19 Jan 2004

Otsego County Planning Commission White Paper: Land Use Issues of Wind Turbine Generator Sites

Otsegowindlfnoise_thumb Low Frequency Noise Low frequency noise is generated at very low frequencies, generally accepted to be at levels below 100 Hz and the audible range. There is presently no commonly accepted metric or standard for measurement, although several have been proposed or used in specific situations. Low frequency noise has been associated with wind turbine developments, as well as road, rail, sea and air traffic and other industrial applications such as cooling towers. It creates a large potential for community annoyance, and it is most often experienced inside of homes and buildings where resonance amplifies the sound, which is less easily heard outside. Because the frequencies are so low, the noise is often “felt” as a vibration or a pressure sensation. Reported effects include annoyance, stress, fatigue, nausea and disturbed sleep. Low frequency noise can be a factor at much greater distances from the noise source than audible noise. A case study in North Carolina in the 1980’s near a wind turbine installation documented low frequency noise problems at residences located over ½ mile from the turbine.2 While the phenomenon was originally believed to be associated with the older, down-wind designed turbines, the problem persists with newer wind farms. It has received particular attention in Denmark, and has been a topic considered in the UK, Scotland and Wales through a commissioned government project in 2001.
19 Jan 2004

Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative

Bats_and_wind_energy_cooperative_scientists_thumb After reviewing data collected during a groundbreaking research effort, the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative (BWEC), a government-conservationindustry partnership, reported today substantial bat kills at two wind farms in the mid-Atlantic region between August 1 and September 13 of 2004. The report summarizes the first year’s research on potential causes and solutions. The research included the most detailed studies ever performed on bat fatality at wind sites and provides a foundation for further efforts aimed at better understanding why bats are being killed and how to minimize future fatalities.
1 Jan 2004

Deposition of Clay White, Planner II, Kittitas County Community Development Services

Claywhitetestimony_1__thumb Q. Has the applicant demonstrated a good faith effort to resolve noncompliance issues? A. The brief answer is no. When Zilkha Renewable Energy applied to EFSEC for permits in January 2003 they made no attempt at that time to apply to Kittitas County in a timely manner in order to resolve non-compliance issues. It took the applicant five months to complete a short application. The (initial) applications to the County were not complete. They had major flaws like the application not being signed, not providing a list of property owners within 300' of the project site, not providing the signatures of the landowners within the project area, and stating that they were only applying for certain permits from the County but not those required (to achieve compliance). The major flaws within each submittal were the most basic elements of the application and listed on the front page of the application. In all the years I have been a Land Use Planner I have never had an applicant provide an application with so many fundamental flaws so many times. I cannot help but think that this was a strategy of Zilkha's all along. This issue was even brought up to the applicant when they continually delayed submitting a complete application to the County. When a complete application was finally received I sent out the Notice of Application within one week. This was the first and only action that the County had control over and it was completed in a timely manner. Zilkha Renewable Energy knew that we were relying on the DEIS to be published which is why we could not give them a conclusive date when the County would hold hearings. On numerous occasions between June and October 2003 we let Zilkha know how much time it would take the County to process their application once an adequate DEIS was complete and the process was in our hands. When the DEIS completion date was pushed back so was our timeframe.
1 Jan 2004

Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative

Bats_and_wind_energy_cooperative_scientists_thumb After reviewing data collected during a groundbreaking research effort, the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative (BWEC), a government-conservationindustry partnership, reported today substantial bat kills at two wind farms in the mid-Atlantic region between August 1 and September 13 of 2004. The report summarizes the first year’s research on potential causes and solutions. The research included the most detailed studies ever performed on bat fatality at wind sites and provides a foundation for further efforts aimed at better understanding why bats are being killed and how to minimize future fatalities.
1 Jan 2004

“How can anyone be against wind power?”

Howcananyone_1__thumb You’d be hard pressed to find many that are simply against wind power, but there ARE hundreds of environmental groups around the world that DO oppose commercial wind development, and are working hard to raise awareness of the many controversial issues associated with it.
1 Jan 2004

Kittitas County Desert Claim Wind Power Project: Final EIS

Health___safety_thumb 3.8 Health & Safety Affected Environment, Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures "A number of comments submitted for the scoping process for the Desert Claim project EIS addressed concerns relating to potential health and safety issues. Specific topics indicated in these comments included certain possible hazards that are uniquely associated with wind turbines, such as blade throw and ice throw; health and safety issues associated with electrical and magnetic fields; more common hazards such as fire; and the incidence and impacts of shadow flicker, another phenomenon specific to wind turbines. Section 3.8 addresses these wide-ranging health and safety topics that have been identified as concerns for the environmental review. "
1 Jan 2004

http://www.windaction.org/posts?location=USA&p=1761
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