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Transmission and distribution technologies

Energy losses in the U.S. T&D system were 7.2% in 1995, accounting for 2.5 quads of primary energy and 36.5 MtC. Losses are divided such that about 60% are from lines and 40% are from transformers (most of which are for distribution).

The electric utility industry is restructuring itself from a regulated environment to operation under competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, the electric transmission and distribution (T&D) systems remain regulated entities that connect deregulated generation to the end-use customer. Construction of U.S. transmission above 230 kV is expected to increase by only 6% (in line-miles)during the next 10 years, while demand is expected to increase more than 20%. The resulting increase in the intensity of use of existing facilities will increase energy losses and transmission congestion, and is likely to cause grid reliability problems and threaten the continued growth of wholesale electricity trade.

Energy losses in the U.S. T&D system were 7.2% in 1995, accounting for 2.5 quads of primary energy and 36.5 MtC. Losses are divided such that about 60% are from lines and 40% are from transformers (most of which are for distribution). Technologies that can improve efficiency and reduce carbon emissions are high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission, high-strength composite overhead conductors, and power transformers and underground cables that use high-temperature superconductors. High-efficiency conventional transformers also could have significant impacts on distribution system losses. In addition, energy storage and real-time system monitoring and control systems could improve system reliability and customer access to competitive generation, including renewable power producers. There is no active U.S. program for HVDC development or improved distribution transformer technologies.

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Transmission Upgrades

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Source: http://climatetechnology.go...

NOV 1 2003
http://www.windaction.org/posts/12107-transmission-and-distribution-technologies
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