This position paper examines the profile of wind power, its impact on the network, security of supply and the quality of the energy delivered. It further deals with the reasons to establish certain technical requirements for the connection of wind power generation to the network.
Editor's Note: This is a worthwhile read in its entirety (attached pdf file). Selected extracts appear below.
"New York has the potential to generate a significant share of its electrical energy requirements through the use of indigenous renewable resources such as wind."
Energy losses in the U.S. T&D system were 7.2% in 1995, accounting for 2.5 quads of primary energy and 36.5 MtC. Losses are divided such that about 60% are from lines and 40% are from transformers (most of which are for distribution).
Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system
today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good
reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided
new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability
Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power
Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York
Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are
starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services.
The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these
technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through
central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads..........
Editor's Note:This paper provides insight into how grids operate.
This web site provides performance data on wind turbines in California from 1985-2003.
Published in the Spring 2002 issue of "Fluent News", this article by Thomas Hahn and Jurgen Kroning addresses the turbulence caused by wind turbines.
"Developers and owners of wind turbines have a duty to ensure the safety of the general
public and their own staff. However, there are currently no guidelines for dealing with
potential dangers arising from ice thrown off wind turbines. This puts developers,
owners, planning authorities and insurers in a difficult position. To rectify this situation,
the work presented here has commenced in order to produce an authoritative set of
guidelines. Initial work has resulted in the development of a risk assessment
methodology which has been used to demonstrate that the risk of being struck by ice
thrown from a turbine is diminishingly small at distances greater than approximately
250 m from the turbine in a climate where moderate icing occurs."
Although the nation's wind potential is very large, only part of it can be exploited
economically. The economic viability of wind power will vary from utility to utility.
Important factors not addressed in this study that influence land availability and wind
electric potential include production/demand match (seasonal and daily), transmission
and access constraints, public acceptance, and other technological and institutional
Editor's Note: Though dated, this is a worthwhile read if read carefully.
Eric Rosenbloom's primer on the units one tends to encounter in researching energy issues.