In this Article, the authors survey the green jobs literature, analyze its assumptions, and show how the special interest groups promoting the idea of green jobs have embedded dubious assumptions and techniques within their analyses. Before undertaking efforts to restructure and possibly impoverish our society, careful analysis and informed public debate about these assumptions and prescriptions are necessary.
The ridgelines, once developed, are likely to remain developed as can so well be seen by the justification for the East Mountain and Little Mt. Equinox proposals: because the roads are already there. Roads are the principal harbingers of development. Once put in, and at great cost, it will be argued, even after the turbines are no long needed, that they be used for something else. We are talking about exchanging something priceless that should go to our children and grandchildren for the short term gain of something that can be had by other means. It is a matter of relative value and to me and many others, the ridgelines are priceless. It think most Vermonters, once they open their eyes to what is about to happen and realize the value of what they are about to lose, will agree.
This important study exposes the significant flaws found in the preconstruction noise modelling produced for the Flyers Creek Wind Farm. The authors validated their findings by conducting noise surveys at an operating wind energy facility within the same region of Australia.
This peer-reviewed report written by the Acoustics Group in Australia evaluates the noise impact assessment for the Collector wind farm proposed to be built in New South Wales. The project will have up to 68 turbines but the turbine make and model is still undetermined. Three turbine makes and models were considered: Suzlon S88-2.1MW, V3; REpower 3.4M 104; Siemens SWT-2.3-101. The introduction and conclusion of the report is shown below. The full report, with appendices, can be accessed by clicking on the links at the bottom of this page.
... because wind energy development has associated environmental costs, wind energy development should only be instituted on state lands if the environmental benefits can be demonstrated to exceed the environmental costs. ... The environmental benefits of wind energy development, in the mid-Atlantic area in general and on Pennsylvania state lands in particular, are small relative to the negative consequences, which include habitat fragmentation and mortality to birds and bats.
Department of Environmental Medicine, Goteborg University, P.O. Box 414, SE-405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
(Received 14 November 2003; revised 1 September 2004; accepted 18 September 2004)
Appendix B: Sample Local Government Requirements for Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Appendix B of The National Wind Coordinating Committees' handbook contains summaries of nine California County ordinances dealing with wind facilities.
The California Wind Energy Collaborative was tasked to look at barriers to new wind energy development in the state. Planning commissions in the state have developed setback standards to reduce the risk of damage or injury from fragments resulting from wind turbine rotor failures. These standards are usually based on overall turbine height. With the trend toward larger capacity, taller towers and longer blades, modern wind turbines can be "squeezed out" of parcels thus reducing the economic viability of new wind developments.
Current setback standards and their development are reviewed. The rotor failure probability is discussed and public domain statistics are reviewed. The available documentation shows rotor failure probability in the 1-in-1000 per turbine per year range. The analysis of the rotor fragment throw event is discussed in simplified terms. The range of the throw is highly dependent on the release velocity, which is a function of the turbine tip speed. The tip speed of wind turbines does not tend to increase with turbine size, thus offering possible relief to setback standards. Six analyses of rotor fragment risks were reviewed. The analyses do not particularly provide guidance for setbacks. Recommendations are made to use models from previous analyses for developing setbacks with an acceptable hazard probability.
This paper examines a number of issues associated with the introduction of increasing
amounts of wind energy into the Irish electricity network. It draws upon international
experience and, in particular, operational data from western Denmark, where wind produces
21% of total electricity consumption. Particular characteristics of the Irish network are
identified and a mixture of empiricism and "first principles" analysis is used to derive estimates
of the capacity credit of wind plant, the extra costs of operational reserve and the total extra
costs of operating with increasing quantities of wind energy.
It is concluded that the total extra cost to the electricity consumer of installing enough wind to
provide 10% of electricity consumption may be around €0.7/MWh, but much depends on
timing (as wind costs are falling rapidly), and the mix between onshore and offshore wind. The
need for market mechanisms to be cost-reflective and promote technical efficiency in
electricity networks is emphasised, recognizing the advantages of integrated electricity
systems. It is noted that this is not in conflict with the requirements for efficient assimilation of